Orchidectomy

This page contains recent news articles, when available, and an overview of Orchidectomy but does not offer medical advice. You should contact your physician with regard to any health issues or concerns.

News: Orchidectomy

thestar.com mobile: article   -  Jan 24, 2010
Taylor, 53, wants to undergo a procedure known as a double orchidectomy, the surgical removal of both testicles, to complete his transition to womanhood. ... Toronto Star

Testicular microlithiasis as a familial risk factor for testicular...   -  May 3, 2007
In the two patients who had undergone partial orchidectomy, one had LTM in the ... This patient was treated for metastatic disease without orchidectomy 15 ... Nature.com

Hormonal Regulation of Circulating C-Reactive Protein in Men   -  May 7, 2005
A study of randomized treatment of prostate cancer by orchidectomy or estrogen ... Patients were randomized to either orchidectomy or estrogen treatment. ... RedOrbit

Pilot evaluation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepress...   -  Jan 6, 2006
After bilateral orchidectomy about half of patients have hot flushes and they ... Long-term side effects of orchidectomy in treatment of prostatic cancer. ... Nature.com

Grapefruit pulp may boost bone health: study   -  Jul 21, 2008
Farzad Deyhim and co-workers castrated 42 male rats (orchidectomy) in order to cause oxidative stress and increases the development of osteoporosis. ... NutraIngredients-usa.com

Intermittent androgen replacement for intense hypogonadism symptoms …   -  Jun 20, 2005
The current forms of androgen blockage are bilateral orchidectomy, ... 3 Hypogonadism, either after orchidectomy or medication, is associated to sexual ... Nature.com

Higgins displays well-stocked mind   -  Feb 9, 2006
Enda Kenny went beyond pruning, expressing hope that, as soon as the chance arose, the electorate would perform an "orchidectomy" on the Taoiseach. ... Irish Times

Strategies for treating and managing testicular cancer.   -  Mar 14, 2006
An orchidectomy is performed. A prosthetic testicle may be inserted and also a biopsy of the contralateral testicle may be considered at this stage to ... Nursing Times

Rapist wants us to pay for sex change   -  Mar 7, 2009
But now she wants an orchidectomy -- the surgical removal of her testes -- and she wants the province to pay. In 1976, Egglestone was found not criminally ... Toronto Sun

Men's : What's the Treatment's of Prostate Cancer?   -  Mar 19, 2009
The incidence of erectile dysfunction is less than with surgical or medical orchidectomy because testosterone levels are maintained in the bloodstream. ... Reriani.com - Reriani.com (press release)

B-Mode and Color Doppler Sonographic Appearances   -  Aug 1, 2007
A left orchidectomy was performed. Histologic examination of the specimen ... An unnecessary orchidectomy is often performed when testis-sparing surgery ... Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine...

It's a man thing...   -  Jan 9, 2006
Prof Oliver has pioneered alternatives to orchidectomy - removal of the testicle - for patients who have already had one operation. ... Telegraph.co.uk

Management of locally advanced prostate cancer   -  Dec 1, 2008
This can be achieved with either bilateral surgical orchidectomy or a medical ... Some early nonrandomized studies concluded that immediate orchidectomy was ... Nature.com

Should Ontario pay for rapist's sex change?   -  Jan 13, 2010
Taylor, 53, wants to undergo a procedure known as a double orchidectomy, the surgical removal of both testicles, to complete his transition to womanhood. ... Hamilton Spectator

Are carboplatin and radiotherapy equally effective for the adjuvant …   -  Sep 20, 2005
Standard therapy comprises orchidectomy followed by pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy, and is curative in almost all reported cases. ... Nature.com

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and carcinoma in situ of the testes   -  Apr 2, 2007
Unilateral CIS is managed by orchidectomy rather than radiation therapy in order to avoid irradiation damage of the healthy, contralateral testis. ... Nature.com

Is PTEN loss associated with clinical outcome measures in human …   -  Oct 14, 2008
Patients were only selected for analysis if they initially responded to hormone treatment (in the form of subcapsular bilateral orchidectomy or maximum ... Nature.com

Two CT scans needed to follow nonseminomatous tumors: study shows …   -  Sep 1, 2006
..."CT scans at 3 and 12 months after orchidectomy should be considered the new standard and will be associated with a reduction in radiation exposure." ... $4.95 - Urology Times - ECNext

A case of scrotal sarcoidosis that mimicked tuberculosis   -  Sep 29, 2006
Of the 60 patients with scrotal sarcoidosis reviewed by Kodama et al., 3 21 were treated with orchidectomy or epididymectomy. Although testicular malignancy ... Nature.com

Lycopene inhibits DNA synthesis in primary prostate epithelial cells...   -  Jan 11, 2006
A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer. BJU Int 2003; 92: 375–378. ... Nature.com

Adjuvant bleomycin, vincristine and cisplatin (BOP) for high-risk...   -  May 31, 2005
Patients were to be registered within 6–8 weeks of orchidectomy, or within 4 weeks of postorchidectomy marker normalisation. Patients with elevated markers, ... Nature.com

A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer...   -  Sep 10, 2007
...(1982) Orchidectomy alone in testicular stage I non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours. Lancet 2: 678–680 | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |. Yoon GH et al. ... Nature.com

Impact Of Surgical And Medical Castration On Serum Testosterone Level...   -  Oct 4, 2009
UroToday.com - Until the development of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), bilateral orchidectomy was the only way to achieve castration. ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Year Results Confirm Unique Long-Term Survival Benefits Of Adjuvant …   -  Sep 23, 2008
The introduction of goserelin transformed the treatment of prostate cancer as previously men with prostate cancer faced surgical orchidectomy (an operation ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Management of stage I seminomatous testicular cancer: a systematic …   -  Oct 26, 2009
The treatment options available for the management of stage I seminoma consist of either a surveillance strategy or adjuvant therapy after orchidectomy. ... UroToday International Journal

Mortality and incidence of second cancers following treatment for …   -  Jan 30, 2007
In the past most seminomas were managed with radiotherapy following orchidectomy whereas with nonseminomas, since the development of effective chemotherapy ... Nature.com

Testicular Metastases: A Poor Prognostic Factor In Patients With …   -  Sep 28, 2008
In a study in Scandinavia, metastatic prostate cancer has been found in 6 percent of therapeutic orchidectomy specimens by Johansson et al. (2) ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Testicular Cancer Survivors at Increased Risk for Metabolic Syndrome   -  Jun 8, 2005
They did the same in 44 men with stage I testicular cancer who underwent orchidectomy only and 47 healthy men of comparable age. ... Cancerpage.com

Chemotherapy Proves More Effective In Preventing Recurrence Of …   -  May 27, 2008
Initial treatment of these cancers involves surgery to remove the affected testicle - orchidectomy. However, nearly one in three men (30%) relapse during ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Fewer CT Scans May Suffice in Testicular Cancer Follow-up   -  Apr 16, 2007
..."CT scans at 3 and 12 months after orchidectomy should be considered a reasonable option in low-risk patients," they conclude. ... Medscape

Updated Licence For Goserelin (Zoladex 3.6 Mg & Zoladex La 10.8mg) …   -  Aug 8, 2008
This is called 'medical castration' as opposed to a surgical castration (orchidectomy), the removal of the testes. - Goserelin is given as an injectable ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Your Doctor Knows Best .   -  Sep 4, 2007
...analogue to decrease testosterone secretion) or surgical orchidectomy (surgical removal of the testes, the major source of testosterone). ... Philippine Daily Inquirer - Google News Archive

Testicular cancer symptoms and treatment   -  Mar 27, 2007
For many years the standard treatment for seminoma in the UK has been surgery (inguinal orchidectomy) followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. ... Cancer Research UK

Carotenoid Cornucopia   -  Nov 16, 2006
...in which 54 men with metastatic prostate cancer were randomized to receive orchidectomy (testicle removal) alone or orchidectomy plus Lyc-O-Mato® tomato ... Natural Products Industry Insider

Attorney General off the hook for rapist's sex-change assessment   -  Jan 21, 2010
The next step is an operation to remove both testicles, a procedure known as a “double orchidectomy.? But what began as a patient's request sparked broader ... Toronto Star

Cranberry juice improved antioxidant status without affecting bone...   -  Dec 1, 2007
The treatments for the 4 months duration of the study were SHAM, orchidectomy (ORX), ORX + drinking either 27% or 45% cranberry juice concentrate added to ... Free with registration - Phytomedicine: International Journal of... - AccessMyLibrary.com

Canadian rapist demands sex change   -  Mar 9, 2009
Now Taylor wants an orchidectomy to surgically remove the testes, the newspapers said. In 1976, Egglestone was found not guilty of a brutal rape by reason ... NEWS.com.au

Transsexual left in limbo   -  Mar 14, 2009
...that will determine whether she should qualify for an orchidectomy -- the surgical removal of the testes -- to complete her transition into a female. ... Toronto Sun

Prufrock: Mafia can't keep Desmond out of New York   -  Jan 16, 2005
According to one version, Bailey endured an eye-wateringly medieval attempt at orchidectomy. Although Desmond denies the gory details, it is not disputed ... Times Online

Article: How I saved my manhood ; When a scan showed a lump in his …   -  Jan 16, 2007
I was stressed and now saw a biopsy - not an MRI scan - as the alternative to an orchidectomy. I got hold of the registrar and said I would go for the ... Pay-Per-View - Independent - London - HighBeam Research

Where science and art are encouraged to meet Stuart Jeffries profiles...   -  Jul 28, 2009
Left-Side Orchidectomy. Beauty and surgical procedure combined in a single discombobulating word. Later, I find myself surfing the Cancer Research UK ... The Guardian

Dr Thomas Stuttaford answers your health questions   -  Dec 15, 2005
Even so, after bilateral orchidectomy (castration) the testosterone level may thereafter be inadequate to sustain growth in prostatic tumours. ... Times Online

Last night's television: Sunshine, BBC1; Jack, A Soldier's Story,...   -  Oct 8, 2008
I would have to have an orchidectomy and prolonged hormone treatment to really enjoy Twiggy's Frock Exchange, but even in my unaltered state I can see it's ... Independent

See you in Wonderland...   -  Sep 9, 2009
Burgess, now 34, cites the arrival of Rogers - who is making good progress after an orchidectomy and chemotherapy - as the most influential of all the ... The Guardian

Can androgen deprivation be considered a primary treatment for...   -  Dec 5, 2005
...treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (with or without the antiandrogen bicalutamide), and 14 men (17%) underwent orchidectomy. ... Nature.com

Prostate cancer kills 1,000 Scots a year, yet most have no idea where...   -  Mar 29, 2009
..."I was given an orchidectomy, where the tubes inside the testicles are cut," he says. "From that day I had no libido and a lot of trouble with continence." ... Scotland on Sunday

The cancer cure that's a cut too far   -  Nov 29, 2008
...'The doctor I was referred to told me it was “all right? – he'd book me in for an orchidectomy [surgery to remove the testicle] the following Monday, ... Daily Mail

Across the sexual dividing line   -  Jun 4, 2005
In 2002 Albertus had an orchidectomy, which is the surgical removal of the testes, although he had started on hormone treatment before then and had already ... Independent Online

Lactate dehydrogenase is not a useful marker for relapse in patients...   -  Apr 11, 2006
A high proportion of patients with stage I testicular germ cell tumours are managed by close surveillance post-orchidectomy (Read et al, 1992). ... Nature.com

CHMP recommends authorisation of FIRMAGON for prostate cancer   -  Dec 22, 2008
The data show that degarelix provided an extremely fast effect on testosterone levels, close to the immediate effect achieved with surgery (orchidectomy). ... ANTARA

An Irishman's Diary   -  Oct 15, 2009
So Mr Ahern could afford to smile indulgently while the critics predicted that the electorate would perform an “orchidectomy? on him and his government in ... Irish Times

RTÉ Television - The Afternoon Show   -  Jan 27, 2005
For a man, having both testicles removed (a bilateral orchidectomy) or having the prostate gland removed (a prostatectomy) will mean that you will not be ... RTE.ie

CT of the chest can hinder the management of seminoma of the testis;...   -  Oct 30, 2006
A retrospective analysis of 182 consecutive patients referred from the date of their orchidectomy from first January 2000 to thirty-first December 2005 with ... Nature.com

Evaluation of sub-acute changes in cardiac function after cisplatin...   -  Mar 26, 2009
After orchidectomy, all patients received three or four three-weekly courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin (30 mg on days 2, ... Nature.com

Is carboplatin as effective as radiotherapy for the adjuvant treatment...   -  Sep 12, 2005
Standard therapy comprises orchidectomy followed by pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy (RT) and is curative in almost all reported cases. ... Nature.com

Mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia with MLL rearrangement: an …   -  Nov 15, 2007
A second-line treatment consisted of orchidectomy, chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy on controlateral testis. After two courses of chemotherapy, ... Nature.com

Intermittent androgen blockade should be regarded as standard therapy...   -  Feb 11, 2008
MAB did not confer a significant survival benefit over monotherapy with GnRH agonists or orchidectomy in advanced or locally advanced prostate cancer. ... Nature.com

Re-induction of hormone sensitivity to diethylstilboestrol in...   -  Jan 8, 2008
However, two patients with a previous orchidectomy, and therefore castrate during chemotherapy, responded to rechallenge with DES in their study. ... Nature.com

Clinical presentation and initial management of Black men and White …   -  Jul 23, 2009
...including orchidectomy, with the intention of slowing progression; and (4) conservative treatment, including watchful waiting, palliative treatment, ... Nature.com

No sex please – we're eunuchs   -  Apr 3, 2007
A bilateral orchidectomy [removal of the testicles] is only performed on the NHS for strict medical reasons – cancer (testicular and prostate) and some ... Belfast Telegraph

Options for predators / Castration suggested as alternative after...   -  Feb 1, 2006
..."For an adult who rapes a child, I would support mandatory orchidectomy," Hanger said, using the clinical term for the procedure. ... Pay-Per-View - Richmond Times - Dispatch - ProQuest Archiver

Who should be screened for sudden death?   -  Dec 2, 2008
In cases where the circulation of blood has been blocked for a long time, it may be necessary to remove the testicles. The operation is called orchidectomy. Irish Times

Spay Day USA fights Overpopulation Of Pets   -  Feb 19, 2005
The clinical name for "neuter" is orchidectomy. When a male is neutered, his testicles are removed. Q. Does spaying and neutering hurt? ... Pay-Per-View - Tampa Tribune - ProQuest Archiver

HEALTH | Well news   -  Mar 14, 2006
An orchidectomy is the rather picturesque name for the surgical removal of male testes. The word derives from the Greek orkhis, meaning testicles. ... Pay-Per-View - San Diego Union - Tribune - ProQuest Archiver

SEX CHANGE IDEA ABSURD   -  Mar 26, 2005
How many men honestly would choose bilateral orchidectomy, vaginoplasty, and years of estrogen therapy to compete as women? ... Pay-Per-View - Orlando Sentinel - ProQuest Archiver

Groundhog Day: Which legislator goes back in his hole for 6 weeks?   -  Feb 2, 2006
..."For an adult who rapes a child, I would support mandatory orchidectomy," Hanger said. Other offenders could ask for physical castration as a term of their ... Pay-Per-View - Richmond Times - Dispatch - ProQuest Archiver

Editorial and introduction to Asian Journal of Andrology Prostate...   -  Dec 22, 2008
Androgen deprivation can be achieved by orchidectomy or by treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue or an antiandrogen. ... Nature.com

Pemerkosa Tuntut Biaya Ganti Kelamin   -  Mar 9, 2009
Sekarang Taylor meminta bagian orchidectomy untuk mengangkat testisnya dengan opeasi, kata harian itu. Pada 1976, Egglestone diputuskan tidak bersalah dalam ... Tempo Interaktif

Imaging of Burned-out Testis Tumor Five New Cases and Review of the …   -  Jan 1, 2007
...testis is crucial for identifying the primary lesion site; all abnormalities shown on clinical or sonographic scrotal examination call for orchidectomy. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine...

Mobile - News, Events, Restaurants, Music from Broward/Palm Beach - …   -  Oct 22, 2006
The word orchid comes from the Greek orkhis, which means testicle, Mounts explains, apropos of nothing in particular, adding that in English an orchidectomy ... Broward New Times

Combined Treatment Approach Increases Survival In Prostate Cancer   -  Apr 8, 2005
Zoladex works in prostate cancer by providing 'medical castration' as opposed to surgical castration (orchidectomy). This avoids the physical and ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

FIRMAGON® (Degarelix) is Launched in Europe for the Treatment of …   -  Mar 19, 2009
...data showed FIRMAGON ® provided a fast reduction of testosterone to very low levels, close to the immediate effect achieved with surgery (orchidectomy). ... UroToday International Journal

Homage to arms.(Coward on the Beach )(Book review)   -  Aug 18, 2007
In the Great War he suffered a battlefield orchidectomy. Delingpole conscientiously acknowledges his official sources. Enriched by his imagination, ... Free with registration - The Spectator - AccessMyLibrary.com

CHMP Recommends Granting Marketing Authorisation For FIRMAGON(R …   -  Dec 23, 2008
The data show that degarelix provided an extremely fast effect on testosterone levels, close to the immediate effect achieved with surgery (orchidectomy). ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Prescribing inconsistencies in prostate cancer treatment in the UK...   -  Dec 12, 2006
LHRHaís work in prostate cancer by providing ëmedical castrationí as opposed to surgical castration (orchidectomy). This avoids the physical and ... PsychCentral.com

European Urology - Management of Stage I Testis Cancer   -  Jan 15, 2007
With certain precautions and adjuvant radiotherapy, this approach has proven to be as effective as orchidectomy. Prognostic factors strongly influence the ... UroToday International Journal

What Is Testicular Cancer? What Causes Testicular Cancer?   -  Oct 10, 2009
In most cases the only way to perform a biopsy safely is to remove the whole testicle - to perform an orchidectomy. This is because the risk of the cancer ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

AT&T Wireless Forum (Phone Scoop)   -  May 23, 2005
How about a double radical orchidectomy with a rusty cheese grater, followed by a zesty squeeze of lime juice? Or forcible sodomizing with a life sized ... Phone Scoop

Firmagon approved for treatment of prostate cancer   -  Feb 20, 2009
The data show that degarelix provided an extremely fast effect on testosterone levels, close to the immediate effect achieved with surgery (orchidectomy). ... Pharmacy Europe

Spay and Neuter Facts   -  Oct 16, 2009
Males have neuter surgery, called orchidectomy, where the cats testicles are removed. Veterinarians provide cats with general anesthesia so the surgery ... CatChannel.com

Secular Trends in Prostate Cancer Mortality, Incidence and Treatment:...   -  Feb 8, 2008
...radical prostatectomy and orchidectomy (source: Hospital Episode Statistics database) and androgen-suppression drugs (source: Intercontinental Medical ... UroToday International Journal

CLINICAL REVIEW: Scrotal and Testicular Problems   -  Sep 18, 2005
...blood vessels occurs, followed by gangrene of the skin. Surgical debridement is invariably required, and orchidectomy results in 10-30 per cent of cases. RedOrbit

Testicular Cancer: Epidemiology, Assessment and Management   -  Mar 15, 2005
Recognise the need for psychological support relating to body image and fertility for male patients following orchidectomy. ... RedOrbit

Beyond the Abstract - Primary Testicular Lymphoma   -  Jan 22, 2008
...two studies of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group treated with orchidectomy, anthracycline-based chemotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate, ... UroToday International Journal

Glendyne Wergland. One Shaker Life, Isaac Newton Youngs, 1793-1865. …   -  Jun 22, 2006
...discussion of the various strategies the Shakers may have used to sublimate or purge themselves of their sexual feelings, including orchidectomy. ... Free with registration - Utopian Studies - AccessMyLibrary.com

Boy's op not so urgent, says hospital   -  Mar 11, 2009
Masibulele Wangaza, 7, of Port Shepstone on the South Coast, was diagnosed with unilateral undescended testes and was supposed to undergo an orchidectomy ... Sowetan

prostate cancer-Opinion Required-PSA level rise upto 240   -  May 30, 2007
On the bases of raised PSA, orchidectomy done 1 year back & tab: Flutamide 1*TDS started, PSA level remain normal on tab Flutamide up to 1 year & relieve ... HealthCentral.com

Testicular Metastases: A Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients With …   -  Sep 8, 2008
A review of patients who underwent androgen deprivation orchidectomy for prostate cancer between 1995 and 2007 was undertaken. On the period evaluated, ... UroToday International Journal

Parenteral Estrogen An Option for Metastatic PCa   -  Sep 2, 2008
Men were randomized to receive PEP or flutamide in combination with either triptorelin or, on an optional basis, bilateral orchidectomy. ... Renal and Urology News

GP Clinical: Managing gender issues.(Disease/Disorder overview)   -  Jun 2, 2006
Male-to-female surgery may include vaginoplasty (from scrotal and penile tissue), penectomy, orchidectomy, clitoroplasty (constructing a clitoris from ... Free with registration - GP - AccessMyLibrary.com

Prostate cancer: Hormone therapy   -  Dec 1, 2006
Testosterone production can also be stopped by surgical removal of the testicles (an operation called orchidectomy) where testosterone is produced. ... WebMD.Boots.com

Metastatic Testicular Cancer   -  Dec 1, 2008
About 3 years earlier, he had been treated for testicular cancer (leiomyosarcoma) with orchidectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation. ... Cancer Network

Prostate cancer treatment launched   -  Mar 20, 2009
...data showed FIRMAGON® provided a fast reduction of testosterone to very low levels, close to the immediate effect achieved with surgery (orchidectomy). ... Pharmacy Europe

Responsible pet owners have their animals spayed or neutered .   -  Aug 2, 2006
...name for neuter is orchidectomy. When a male is neutered, his tes . Does spaying and neutering hurt? Veterinarians provide animals with a general anesthetic ... Calhoun-Liberty Journal - Google News Archive

Prescribing Inconsistencies In Prostate Cancer Treatment In The UK …   -  Dec 17, 2006
LHRHa's work in prostate cancer by providing "medical castration" as opposed to surgical castration (orchidectomy). This avoids the physical and ... Medical News Today - Medical News Today (press release)

Effect of exercise training on energy balance of orchidectomized rats   -  Jul 1, 2005
There was no difference in metabolizable energy intake and body energy gain between trained and sedentary rats that underwent orchidectomy without ... AJP-Regul Integr Comp Physiology...

Clinical Review: Scrotal and testicular problems.   -  Sep 2, 2005
Surgical debridement is invariably required, and orchidectomy results in 10-30 per cent of cases. - Hypermobility of the testicle increases the risk of ... Free with registration - GP - AccessMyLibrary.com

The obligation of narrative.(Humour and Humanity/Humour et Humanite)   -  Jul 1, 2006
The way he told it he collapsed in his back yard, and woke up after having an orchidectomy. "And what do you think they served for dinner that night? ... Free with registration - Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine - AccessMyLibrary.com

Dr Amit Ghose is a consultant urologist, Anandaloke Hospital   -  Aug 1, 2005
Otherwise, you may need a small operation called sub-capsular orchidectomy (removal of both the testes). The results of these treatment procedures is often ... Calcutta Telegraph

The Truth About Spay and Neuter Surgery for Puppies   -  Jul 11, 2008
A male gets neuter surgery (orchidectomy), where his testicles are removed. Veterinarians provide dogs with a general anesthetic, so the surgery itself is ... Dog Channel



Background information on Orchidectomy [When available]

Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical, chemical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. This causes sterilization, i.e. prevents them from reproducing; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. It should not be confused with penectomy, which is the whole or partial removal of the penis.

The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the non-male, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. The estrogen that the non-males produce becomes obsolete with this surgical procedure.

Castration in humans

History

Castration was frequently used in certain cultures, such as in Europe, the Middle East, India, Africa or China, for religious or social reasons. After battles, winners castrated their captives or bodies of the defeated to symbolise their victory and 'seize' their power. Castrated men - eunuchs - were often admitted to special social classes. Eunuchs were also often used to guard harems. Castration also figured in a number of religious cults: see castration cults. Other religions, for example Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice.

In Europe, when women were not allowed to sing in public, young boys were sometimes castrated to prevent their voices breaking at puberty and to develop a special high voice. These men, known as castrati were very popular in the Eighteenth Century. The practice of employing castrati lasted longest in Italian churches, most notoriously in the Sistine Chapel Choir. [1] [2]

Remains of transsexual women or transgendered people from as far back as the Roman era have been uncovered and confirmed to have undergone castration.

Castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions.

Reasons

Surgical removal of a testicle is done in the case of testicular cancer. Surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer, as hormone treatment to slow down the cancer. [3]

Male-to-female transsexual women, as well as some transgendered people, often undergo castration. Castration can be done before, during, or in place of sex reassignment surgery.

A temporary chemical castration has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes such as rape or other sexually related violence. Chemical or surgical castration is being discussed in many countries in particular as a voluntary surgical measure: an option for child molesters to avoid (long-term) imprisonment. In the case of chemical castration, regular injections of anti-androgens would probably be required. However, this treatment is not as effective as commonly believed, for there have been numerous cases of castrated men continuing to molest children.

There is also evidence that voluntary castration is used in modern societies for reasons such as control of libido, body modification, and in some cases of extreme sexual masochism, for purposes of sexual excitement (see paraphilia and apotemnophilia). Since voluntary castration is not generally supported by the medical community, an underground network of castrators (generally called "cutters") without medical licenses has formed. Surgery performed by untrained personnel outside a properly equipped medical facility is dangerous, and there have been cases of severe bleeding and other medical emergencies. Alternatively, self-castration (or autocastration) is occasionally performed, though it carries significant risk. Many who desire castration travel to developing countries, where medicine is less tightly regulated, and have the procedure performed by a doctor.

Involuntary castration also appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was also practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to possess the defeated men's women. Involuntary castration under such circumstances involved excruciating pain and humiliation as well as various physical, social, and psychological consequences. Ancient Greek writings report Persian forces castrating defeated foes. Tamerlane was recorded to have castrated Armenian prisoners of war who had fought as allies of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I; others were buried alive. Gibbon's famous work, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans. The Vietcong have sometimes been accused of castrating US war prisoners, Vietnamese village elders, and others who opposed their policies. Castration has also been used in modern conflicts, as the Janjaweed militiamen currently (as of 2005) attacking citizens of the Darfur region in Sudan often castrate villagers as part of a campaign of terror.

Sima Qian, the famous Chinese Historian, was castrated by order of the Emperor of China for dissent. Another famous victim of castration was the medieval monk Abelard, castrated by his lover's relatives.

The Heaven's Gate cult of Marshall Applewhite had several male members, including Applewhite himself, who underwent castration for religious reasons.

Medical consequences

A subject of castration who is castrated before the onset of puberty will retain his high voice, slight build and small genitals, will not develop pubic hair, and will have a small sex drive or none at all.

In ancient times castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection, and in some states such as the Byzantine Empire was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles entailed much less risk. That said, the Hijras of India still practice the total removal of the male genitalia.

Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrates can, however, still have erections, orgasms and ejaculations. The voice will normally not change. Some castrates report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair may or may not decrease. Castration prevents baldness.

In China, male castration of a person who entered the caste of eunuchs under imperial times involved the removal of all genitalia, that is, the removal of the penis, testicles and scrotum. The removed organs were returned to the eunuch, to be interred with him once he dies, so upon rebirth, he could become a whole man again. The penis, testicles and scrotum were euphemistically termed as bao (?) in Mandarin Chinese, which literally means 'precious treasure'. Consequently, eunuchs suffered from a range of urogenital problems associated with the removal of their sexual organs, and they had their own specialist doctors who catered to their health needs.

Castration In Veterinary Practice

Castration is common in animal husbandry and animal fancy, where it is intended for favouring a given desired development of the animal or of its habits.

In animal fancy

Usually domestic pets are subject to castration in order to avoid sexual frustration or sexual contacts and consequent reproduction. In the case of pets, this is usually called neutering. breeding specimens are kept entire and fetch higher prices when sold.

In animal husbandry

In the food industry, cattle and other ruminants are often castrated in order to increase their weight and improve the taste of the meat (with the advantage of relevant economies of scale for the breeder). Male animals may also be castrated in order to make them more tractable.

A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species:
  • Barrow (pig)
  • Bullock (cattle)
  • Capon (chicken)
  • Dinmont (sheep, goat)
  • Gelding (horse)
  • Gib (cat)
  • Havier (deer)
  • Hog (pig)
  • Lapin (rabbit)
  • Ox (cattle)
  • Stag (primarily cattle)
  • Steer (cattle)
  • Wether (sheep)
Certain animals, like horses and swine, are usually treated with a scrotal castration (which can be done with the animal standing), while others, like dogs and cats, with a pre-scrotal castration (with the animal recumbent).

Methods of veterinary castration include surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against its own sexual hormones.

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