Male sterilization

This page contains recent news articles, when available, and an overview of Male sterilization but does not offer medical advice. You should contact your physician with regard to any health issues or concerns.

News: Male sterilization

Teens Delaying Sexual Activity; Using Contraception More Effectively   -  Feb 14, 2005
For example, college-educated women are four times as likely to use the pill, four times as likely to rely on male sterilization, and one-fourth as likely ... emaxhealth.com

Caplis claimed birth control "fails at an alarmingly high rate"...   -  Aug 29, 2007
According to Contraceptive Technology, female sterilization is 99.5 percent effective (with both typical and perfect use), and male sterilization is 99.85 ... mediamatters.org

United States 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals Reports - LIN v. GONZALES,...   -  Apr 12, 2006
Lin's husband then obtained a false male sterilization certificate from a friend who worked at a local hospital. Lin's husband presented the false ... Pay-Per-View - United States 2nd Circuit Court of... - Loislaw

Article: Contraceptive methods used by women aged 15-44 years.( …   -  Jun 15, 2005
DATA WATCH Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Male sterilization,9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence/other, 6.5% 3-Month injectable, ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

Article: Contraceptive methods used by women aged 15-44 years.(DATA …   -  Apr 15, 2005
Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Pill 30.6% Female sterilization 27% Condom 18% Male sterilization 9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence . ... Pay-Per-View - OB GYN News - HighBeam Research

Male infertility   -  Jun 14, 2008
Antibodies that target sperm and weaken or disable them usually occur after surgical blockage of part of the vas deferens for male sterilization (vasectomy) ... CNN International

Editorial: Stand up and be open   -  Aug 21, 2006
In 2003, the stigma associated with male sterilization shrouded NSV in so much secrecy, recalls Baking. There had to be a separate entrance to the VSMMC ... Sun.Star

Contraception; Trends in premenopausal women's use of contraceptives ...   -  Jan 6, 2005
For example, college-educated women are four times as likely to use the pill, four times as likely to rely on male sterilization, and one-fourth as likely ... Pay-Per-View - Women's Health Weekly - Factiva, from Dow Jones

Contraception; Trends in premenopausal women's use of contraceptives ...   -  Jan 7, 2005
For example, college-educated women are four times as likely to use the pill, four times as likely to rely on male sterilization, and one-fourth as likely ... Pay-Per-View - Drug Week - Factiva, from Dow Jones

BRAZIL: HEALTH MINISTRY OPPOSES STERILIZATION OF YOUNG …   -  Aug 23, 2007
More educated women use a wider the variety of family planning methods and their partners are more likely to have had a vasectomy (male sterilization), ... Free with registration - Inter Press Service - AccessMyLibrary.com

NCHS dataline.(survey of National Center for Health Statistics)   -  May 1, 2005
For example, college-educated women were four times as likely to use the pill, four times as likely to rely on male sterilization, and one-fourth as likely ... $4.95 - Public Health Reports - ECNext

Contraception; Trends in premenopausal women's use of contraceptives ...   -  Jan 3, 2005
For example, college-educated women are four times as likely to use the pill, four times as likely to rely on male sterilization, and one-fourth as likely ... Pay-Per-View - OBGYN & Reproduction Week - Factiva, from Dow Jones

Tighten rules against clinical trials: Panel   -  May 5, 2008
...and opined that the entire contraception programme of the government had become women-centric and male sterilization had been put on the backburner. ... Times of India

Nigeria: Reforming the Health Ministry   -  Apr 15, 2008
...postinor 2, Lo-femenal, Norplant, suction tubes, Vasectomy (male sterilization), tubal ligation (female sterilization) etc among the Nigerian public. ... AllAfrica.com

For some women, tubal ligation is the only real way to avoid pregnancy   -  Oct 31, 2007
With around one in 100 patients experiencing complications, tubal ligation is riskier than male sterilization(vasectomy). And while tubals can sometimes be ... macleans.ca

Article: Contraceptive methods used by women aged 15-44 years.(DATA …   -  Jul 1, 2005
Male sterilization remains the most cost effective of all contraceptive methods. In terms of hormonal contraception, it is important to educate women about ... Pay-Per-View - Family Practice News - HighBeam Research

Right of Conscience   -  Jul 17, 2006
Male Sterilization Issue...: I remember when I went for counsel with my doctor about getting a vasectomy, that my doctor wasn't happy or thrilled about it. ... Washington Post

Wife: Vasectomy Killed My Husband   -  Feb 12, 2008
The healthy 37-year-old British man had contracted septicemia, a type of blood poisoning, after undergoing the male sterilization procedure, The Daily Mail ... FOXNews

The Case Against Male Birth Control   -  Sep 4, 2009
...taking male hormonal methods or undergoing male sterilization is somehow emasculating. (Hint: It's not your sperm count that makes you less of a man.) ... Emory Wheel - The Emory Wheel

POPULATION: Bridging the Family Planning Gap   -  Jan 9, 2010
Iran introduced a full panoply of contraceptive measures, including the option of male sterilization - a first among Muslim countries. ... Inter Press Service

Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan   -  Jan 14, 2010
...the pill (12%), tubal ligation (12%) and other methods, including the hormonal implant, male sterilization and the diaphragm (4%), according to a study. ... Daily Times

Male sterilisation stays taboo   -  Jun 13, 2009
CHENNAI: In the midst of a counselling session on the male sterilization procedure, K Devi (name changed), uttered what to doctors has become the most ... Express Buzz

Compulsory renovations every 15 years   -  Jan 26, 2007
This time, they chose to use IUDs instead of male sterilization because the process is reversible and leaves open a possibility of breeding the chimpanzees ... Pay-Per-View - Jerusalem Post - ProQuest Archiver

KARACHI: Study paints a grim picture of progress in health sector   -  Oct 23, 2008
The most widely-used method is female sterilization (eight per cent), followed by the use of condoms (seven per cent), while use of male sterilization and ... DAWN.com

Birth Control - Birth Control Methods   -  May 22, 2008
Female sterilization is more complicated, has higher risks of problems after surgery, and is more expensive than male sterilization. ... WebMD

readers' comments Fertility Rise for Richest - Boon or Trouble?   -  Aug 9, 2009
...and then to, β€œIs an electricity connection fair compensation for male sterilization?β€? – and then to β€œIf only a stable dictatorship could force a 30-year ... nytimes.com

Vasectomy: an update.(Clinical report)   -  Dec 15, 2006
It is unknown if these findings represent cultural barriers to male sterilization or financial barriers from lower socioeconomic status. ... Free with registration - American Family Physician - AccessMyLibrary.com

sterilization -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia   -  Jun 19, 2008
Male sterilization (vasectomy) involves less risk to the subject and is simpler and less expensive than sterilization in women. In this procedure, each vas ... Subscription - Encyclopedia Britannica

Contraception: A woman's burden!   -  May 26, 2007
...options are available to men, the answer is that only three purely male methods exist - withdrawal, the condom, and vasectomy (male sterilization). ... Merinews

Giving men a veto over a woman's body opens Pandora's box of dangers ...   -  Mar 23, 2006
This is dangerous territory because it could cause problems on euthanasia, male sterilization and other controversial medical procedures, especially those ... $2.95 - Detroit News - NewsBank

[U] Diallo v. Mukasey, No. 07-0533-ag (2d Cir. 02/07/2008)   -  Feb 7, 2008
2006) (holding that the IJ erred in discrediting the applicant's testimony on the basis of having obtained a false male sterilization certificate in order ... $2.95 - U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit - VersusLaw

The birth control maze Let your age, sexual activity, relationships...   -  Mar 6, 2005
When the percentages of women relying on either female sterilization (16.7%) or male sterilization (5.7%) are combined, the total percentage relying on ... $2.95 - Milwaukee Journal Sentinel - NewsBank

Contraceptive options for HIV-infected women.(Hormonal Contraceptive ...   -  Jun 22, 2007
HIV-discordant couples in which the man is HIV-negative and the woman is HIV-positive may want to consider male sterilization because it does not depend on ... Free with registration - Network - AccessMyLibrary.com

Birth control methods.   -  May 24, 2006
...(NuvaRing) 1 to 2% Female Sterilization less than 1% Male Sterilization less than 1% No Method 85% Note: These failure rates are modified from Hatcher, ... $4.95 - Clinical Reference Systems - ECNext

One size does not fit all when it comes to contraceptives .   -  Oct 16, 2007
...with 103 women undergoing the procedure That was followed by the male con dom, which accounts for 69 million women, then male sterilization at million. ... Ocala Star-Banner - Google News Archive

Population exec says vasectomy still unpopular .   -  Sep 16, 2005
...million residents are men between 15 and 54 years old, vasectomy or male sterilization 'is shunned be cause it is regarded as damaging to die "macho" image. ... Philippine Daily Inquirer - Google News Archive

Birth Control Health Center   -  May 22, 2008
Female and male sterilization. In RA Hatcher et al., eds., Contraceptive Technology, 18th ed., pp. 531–573. New York: Ardent Media. Labrecque M, et al. ... WebMD

ANALYSIS-POPULATION: FAMILY PLANNING KEY TO PROSPEROUS …   -  Jan 22, 2009
...contraceptive measures, including the option of male sterilization -- a first among Muslim countries. All forms of birth control, ... Pay-Per-View - Inter Press Service English News Wire - HighBeam Research

Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low- …   -  Mar 1, 2007
The vast majority of women within the sterilization category underwent female sterilization (97%), and the remainder reported male sterilization or ... $4.95 - International Family Planning Perspectiv... - ECNext

Seattle doctor to appear on 'Today' show   -  May 18, 2008
...scheduled to appear Tuesday on NBC's "Today" show with a Seattle couple who were filmed during the husband's male sterilization procedure in February. ... Seattle Post-Intelligencer - Seattle Post Intelligencer

Free vasectomy camps to be held in many places   -  Oct 15, 2005
The NSV is a safe, reliable, easy and dependable means of male sterilization. It requires no cut or incision and the entire procedure takes just about five ... Pay-Per-View - Hindustan Times - Factiva, from Dow Jones

Reducing unintended pregnancy in the United States.   -  Dec 22, 2006
...sterilization (10.3 million), male condoms (6.8 million) and male sterilization (3.5 million), according to National Center for Health Statistics data. ... Free with registration - Conscience - AccessMyLibrary.com

Emergency pill? Keep for emergency only: Doctors   -  Oct 7, 2007
Female and male sterilization comprises more than 80 percent of contraceptive use. In addition, there has been little growth in the CPR; the majority of ... Free with registration - PTI - The Press Trust of India Ltd - AccessMyLibrary.com

Code of Massachusetts Regulations - 130 CMR 433.456: Sterilization …   -  Aug 9, 2005
...(1) Male sterilization must be performed by a licensed physician in a physician's office, hospital, or sterilization clinic. (2) Female sterilization must ... Pay-Per-View - Code of Massachusetts Regulations - Loislaw

Bone Tx heart effects investigated.(CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE)( …   -  May 1, 2009
DATA WATCH Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Male sterilization,9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence/other, 6.5% 3-Month injectable, ... Pay-Per-View - Family Practice News - HighBeam Research

Birth control methods.(Adult Health Advisor 2007)   -  May 31, 2007
Implant (Norplant) 0.05% 0.05% Patch (Ortho Evra) 8 % 0.3 % Vaginal ring (NuvaRing) 8 % 0.3 % Female Sterilization 0.5 % 0.5 % Male Sterilization 0.15% 0.1. $4.95 - Clinical Reference Systems - ECNext

Code of Massachusetts Regulations - 130 CMR 421.438: Sterilization …   -  Aug 9, 2005
...(D) Location in Which Sterilizations May Be Performed. Male sterilization must be performed by a licensed physician at the family planning agency's site. Pay-Per-View - Code of Massachusetts Regulations - Loislaw

MAKING THE CUT.(Life and Arts) | Article from Seattle Post-Intelligenc...   -  May 19, 2008
...scheduled to appear Tuesday on NBC's "Today" show with a Seattle couple who were filmed during the husband's male sterilization procedure in February. ... Pay-Per-View - Seattle Post-Intelligencer - HighBeam Research

All those involved in AIG failure should be ashamed   -  Apr 10, 2009
I propose that a plan based on male sterilization is better than China's approach. After fathering one or two children, offer a cash award for the man to be ... $2.95 - Herald & Review - NewsBank

Gyrx sells subsidiary for $11.5M   -  Jul 19, 2006
Gyrx will focus on a male sterilization device it has developed called the Ti-Clip, a titanium spring clip used in vasectomies. Jacksonville Business Journal

Factors affecting vasectomy acceptability in Tanzania.   -  Mar 1, 2007
...(13,14) According to recent estimates, female sterilization is used by 3% of women who practice contraception, and male sterilization by fewer than 1%. ... $4.95 - International Family Planning Perspectiv... - ECNext

Florida Administrative Code - 64F-7.007 Voluntary Sterilization.   -  Jul 5, 2005
...risks and benefits associated with female and male sterilization procedures. (2) Providers must follow federal sterilization guidelines in performing or ... Pay-Per-View - Florida Administrative Code - Loislaw

Defense raises compelling questions   -  May 2, 2006
Trent was provided with medical records that showed he had a vasectomy, a surgery performed for a male sterilization, in December 1977. ... Tuttle Times

Vasectomy linked to dementia   -  Feb 14, 2007
Researchers in the United States have linked male sterilization surgery to a certain form of dementia. A team at Northwestern University in Illinois say men ... News-Medical.net

Undergo non-surgical vasectomy, get Rs 1000 as incentive   -  Oct 17, 2005
On the contrary, male sterilization procedure does not involve any elaborate procedure. The NSV procedure is done without any surgery and takes just five to ... Expressindia.com

The Fertility Debate   -  May 12, 2006
Iranian men, for example have one of the highest rates of vasectomy or male sterilization, which is odd because most developing countries like Iran which ... Chowk

Changes in contraceptive method mix in developing countries.   -  Sep 1, 2007
...the share of all method use accounted for by male sterilization remained below 3% for all periods. Use of traditional methods declined in all regions; ... $20.00 - International Family Planning Perspectiv... - Alacra Store

www.jconline.com | Printer-friendly article page   -  Oct 30, 2005
Vasectomies, or male sterilization, can usually be done in a physician's office. That's not the case for tubal ligation, a more intrusive procedure in which ... Journal and Courier

The Best Defense Iran Could Have   -  Dec 16, 2008
In Iran abortion is illegal, male sterilization legal, and couples required to take a class on modern contraception before marrying. ... OpEdNews

Senegal 2005: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.(DATA)( …   -  Sep 1, 2007
...condom 21.8 0.1 0.0 Female sterilization 62.4 0.5 0.5 Male sterilization 10.1 0.0 0.0 Implant 57.5 1.4 0.6 Emergency contraception 10.0 0.2 0.0 LAM 44.3 ... Free with registration - Studies in Family Planning - AccessMyLibrary.com

Code of Massachusetts Regulations - 130 CMR 485.406: Locations in …   -  Aug 9, 2005
130 CMR 485.406 : Locations in Which Sterilizations May Be Performed (A) Male sterilization must be performed by a licensed physician in a physician's ... Pay-Per-View - Code of Massachusetts Regulations - Loislaw

Code of Massachusetts Regulations - 130 CMR 405.425: Obstetric …   -  Aug 9, 2005
...(1) Male sterilization must be performed by a licensed physician at the CHC. (2) Female sterilization must be performed by a licensed physician in an ... Pay-Per-View - Code of Massachusetts Regulations - Loislaw

The Best Defense Iran Could Have   -  Dec 17, 2008
In Iran abortion is illegal, male sterilization legal, and couples required to take a class on modern contraception before marrying. ... scoop.co.nz

Congo 2005: results from the demographic and health survey.(DATA)   -  Jun 1, 2007
...condom 94.4 50.6 8.9 Female condom 37.7 0.9 na Female sterilization 33.4 0.2 0.2 Male sterilization 12.5 na na Implant 7.9 na na Emergency contraception ... Free with registration - Studies in Family Planning - AccessMyLibrary.com

Family planning clinics may not be the best option for serving...   -  Jun 1, 2005
Modest increases were seen for the pill and injectable; however, no significant change occurred in knowledge of condoms or male sterilization. ... $4.95 - International Family Planning Perspectiv... - ECNext

Colombia 2005: results from the demographic and health survey.(Data)(...   -  Mar 1, 2007
Injectables 98.5 33.8 5.8 Foam/jelly 79.0 16.1 0.5 Male condom 99.1 48.6 7.1 Female sterilization 98.2 31.2 31.2 Male sterilization 85.7 2.2 1.8 Implant ... Free with registration - Studies in Family Planning - AccessMyLibrary.com

Article: Fed: Health stats for a day in Australia - AAP General News...   -  Jun 24, 2008
In 1995, the major contraceptives used were female sterilization, 18%; oral contraceptive, 17%; the male condom, 13%; and male sterilization, 7%. 3. ... Pay-Per-View - AAP General News - HighBeam Research

Article: Family planning clinics may not be the best option for...   -  Jun 1, 2005
Modest increases were seen for the pill and injectable; however, no significant change occurred in knowledge of condoms or male sterilization. ... Pay-Per-View - International Family Planning Perspectiv... - HighBeam Research

Article: The Mind of the Married Man: The Complete First Season.(JUST...   -  Jul 4, 2005
Sterilization is an extremely effective method of contraception and male sterilization (vasectomy) is increasingly popular. In addition, vasectomy is a ... Pay-Per-View - Video Business - HighBeam Research

Article: Fed: Health stats for a day in Australia - AAP General News...   -  Jun 24, 2008
In 1995, the major contraceptives used were female sterilization, 18%; oral contraceptive, 17%; the male condom, 13%; and male sterilization, 7%. 3. ... Pay-Per-View - AAP General News - HighBeam Research

Animal type tests get renewed backing by mother-in-laws   -  Aug 24, 2005
Ironically, the British medical society announced today that voluntary male sterilization has reached an all-time high however, Brian McGavin, ... thespoof.com

Costs of contraception a concern.(GUEST EDITORIAL)   -  Feb 15, 2007
Male sterilization remains the most cost effective of all contraceptive methods. In terms of hormonal contraception, it is important to educate women about ... Free with registration - Internal Medicine News - AccessMyLibrary.com

Union of Catholic Asian News Β» News Archive Β» Cafeteria-Style Kiosks ...   -  Apr 2, 2007
Intra-Uterine Devices (IUD), NFP, oral contraceptives, and vasectomy (male sterilization). Only NFP is approved by the Catholic Church. ... Union of Catholic Asian News

Programs available for underinsured, uninsured patients   -  Jul 15, 2005
...provides information regarding prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, female and male sterilization, HIV testing and counseling. ... Amador Ledger-Dispatch

Modesto Bee, The : YESTERYEARS   -  Jan 14, 2005
25 YEARS AGO: The first tax-supported program to provide male sterilization in Stanislaus County was approved by the Board of Supervisors through its ... $3.95 - Modesto Bee - NewsBank

Article: Women aged 20 years and older who are obese, 2000-2002.( …   -  Jun 1, 2005
Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Pill 30.6% Female sterilization 27% Condom 18% Male sterilization 9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence . ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

Maryland Code of Regulations - 10.07.01.21 Procedures for Which …   -  Aug 4, 2005
...(55) Meatotomy β€” incision for enlarging opening of urethra; (56) Urethral dilation β€” increasing size of urethra; (57) Vasectomy β€” male sterilization; ... Pay-Per-View - Maryland Code of Regulations - Loislaw

National survey of older women shows few are counseled to exercise.( …   -  Jul 1, 2005
Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Pill 30.6% Female sterilization 27% Condom 18% Male sterilization 9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence . ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

Many women could stop cervical screening at age 50.(Women's Health) |...   -  Sep 15, 2005
Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Pill 30.6% Female sterilization 27% Condom 18% Male sterilization 9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence . ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

HPV in women over 50.(CLINICAL CAPSULES)(Brief Article) | Article...   -  Dec 15, 2005
Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Pill 30.6% Female sterilization 27% Condom 18% Male sterilization 9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence . ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

Comparative effects of the sorghum bmr-6 and bmr-12 genes: II. Grain ...   -  Nov 1, 2005
MAIZE (Zea mays L.) crop residues often serve as an economical feed for ruminant animals (Klopfenstein et al., 1987). Nearly 3 million hectares of grain ... $4.95 - Crop Science - ECNext

HPV vaccination talk turns to older women.(News)(human papillomavirus)...   -  Apr 1, 2008
DATA WATCH Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Male sterilization,9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence/other, 6.5% 3-Month injectable, ... Pay-Per-View - Family Practice News - HighBeam Research

Local Planned Parenthood office to offer vasectomies   -  Jun 14, 2005
After a July startup in the Tri-Cities, Planned Parenthood of Central Washington plans to offer free or low-cost vasectomies in Yakima. ... $2.95 - Yakima Herald-Republic - NewsBank

Con-spirando.(Periodicals)(Brief Article)(Periodical Review) |...   -  Jan 1, 2005
This issue focuses on male sterilization. Outlook is available online in several languages. * For more information,. Women's Health Journal ... Pay-Per-View - Women's Health Journal - HighBeam Research

Article: Half of America on drugs.(POLICY & PRACTICE)(Brief article) ...   -  Jun 15, 2008
DATA WATCH Contraceptive Methods Used by Women Aged 15-44 Years Male sterilization,9.2% Withdrawal/periodic abstinence/other, 6.5% 3-Month injectable, ... Pay-Per-View - Internal Medicine News - HighBeam Research

Outlook.(Periodicals)(Brief Article)(Periodical Review) | Article...   -  Jan 1, 2005
This issue focuses on male sterilization. Outlook is available online in several languages. * For more information, visit the PATH website at ... Pay-Per-View - Women's Health Journal - HighBeam Research

Outlook.(Periodicals)(Brief Article)(Periodical Review)   -  Jan 1, 2005
This issue focuses on male sterilization. Outlook is available online in several languages. * For more information, visit the PATH website at ... $4.95 - Women's Health Journal - ECNext

New York Codes, Rules and Regulations - 10 NYCRR 86-1.63. Non- …   -  May 18, 2007
INFLAMMATION OF THE MALE 2 11 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 351 MALE STERILIZATION 1 7 352 OTHER MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1 6 DIAGNOSES 353 PELVIC EVISCERATION, ... Pay-Per-View - New York Codes, Rules and Regulations - Loislaw



Background information on Male sterilization [When available]

A vasectomy is a common form of male sterilization consisting of a minor surgical procedure that permanently ends fertility in men. Vasectomy interrupts the vas deferens, preventing the sperm from entering the semen, so that semen is ejaculated without sperm.

Background information on

Search the web for more resources on Male sterilization



Health Home | Conditions | Cancer | Medications | Surgery | Vaccines


The Cancer News Network


Disclaimer:

Contact a physician with regard to health concerns. Email requests for further health information will be discarded.

The materials contained on this Web site are for informational purposes only and do not constitute health or medical advice. Use of information on this site does not create or constitute any kind of agreement or contract between you and the owners or users of this site, the owners of the servers upon which it is housed, or anyone else who is in any way connected with this site.

Many links on cancernewsnetwork.org lead to other sites. cancernewsnetwork.org does not sponsor, endorse or otherwise approve of the materials appearing in such sites. Nor is CancerNewsNetwork.org responsible for dead or misdirected links.

IF YOU NEED A LINK OR TEXT REMOVED FROM THIS PAGE PLEASE CONTACT cancernewsnetwork (at) live.com.
We will do our best to accommodate your request.



COPYRIGHT 2009 CANCERNEWSNETWORK | Privacy | Privacy