This page contains recent news articles, when available, and an overview of Castration but does not offer medical advice. You should contact your physician with regard to any health issues or concerns.

News: Castration

Poland approves forcible castration for paedophiles   -  Sep 25, 2009
Poland's parliament has approved a law making chemical castration obligatory for convicted paedophiles and perpetrators of incest, sparking criticism from ...

Europeans Debate Castration of Sex Offenders   -  Mar 11, 2009
Antonin Novak in Hradec Kralove on Feb. 20 being sentenced to life in prison for the rape and killing of Jakub Simanek, 9. By DAN BILEFSKY ... New York Times

'Chemical castration' option for sex crimes   -  Jun 13, 2007
Sex offenders are to be offered the opportunity for “chemical castration? as part of a series of measures to be published today to tackle child-sex ... Times Online

Pedophile Geoffrey Dobbs a castration candidate   -  Jun 26, 2008
A MAN dubbed Australia's worst pedophile could be one of the first to apply for chemical castration in the hope of shortening his jail term. ...

Pedophile Who Sought Castration Is Released   -  May 4, 2005
The release of a convicted child molester who claims to have undergone voluntary castration so he wouldn't molest again is causing alarm and sparking ... ABC News

Poland to enforce chemical castration of paedophiles   -  Sep 26, 2008
Poland is to become the first EU country to impose chemical castration on convicted paedophiles. By Charlotte Bailey. Legislation is being pushed through ...

Does Castration Stop Rapists?   -  Dec 12, 2007
By RUSSELL GOLDMAN. Though leading the polls in Iowa, Republican presidential candidate Mike Huckabee has received additional and unwanted attention in ... ABC News

La. gov. signs chemical castration bill   -  Jun 26, 2008
BATON ROUGE, La., June 26 (UPI) -- Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal has signed into law a measure that would force convicted rapists and others to undergo ...

Castration of sex offenders: Deterrent or torture?   -  Mar 10, 2009
By Dan Bilefsy. He went to see a family doctor, who said they would go away. But after viewing a Bruce Lee martial arts film, he said he felt uncontrollable ... New York Times

Rapist chooses castration over life in jail   -  Jul 14, 2005
A man who admitted raping two young girls in the US has agreed to be castrated to avoid serving a life prison sentence. Keith Raymond Fremin, 42, ... Sydney Morning Herald

Kaine Vetoes Bill To Study Castration   -  Apr 10, 2007
RICHMOND, April 10 -- Gov. Timothy M. Kaine vetoed a bill Tuesday that would have required state agencies to study whether Virginia should start castrating ... Washington Post

After Castration, California Sex Offender Seeks Freedom   -  Jul 4, 2006
By AP. A convicted child molester who was castrated to curb his urges is asking a court to release him from custody. The man, Kevin Reilly, paid to have his ... New York Times

Three Men Charged in 'Dungeon' Castration   -  Apr 1, 2006
Three men have been arrested on charges of performing castrations on apparently willing participants in a sadomasochistic "dungeon" in a rural house, ... San Francisco Chronicle

French pedophile asks government for castration   -  Oct 17, 2009
PARIS (Reuters) - A French man charged with raping a boy after being imprisoned for two other child rape cases has written to President Nicolas Sarkozy ... Reuters UK

Bill Calling for Castration of Sex Offenders Passes Louisiana Senate   -  Apr 15, 2008
BATON ROUGE, La. — The most serious sex crimes should be punishable by castration, with drugs or surgery, the Louisiana Senate voted on Tuesday. ... FOXNews

Czech castration raises worries   -  Jul 13, 2007
By Alix Kroeger. A European anti-torture watchdog has expressed "serious reservations" about surgical castration being used to treat sex offenders in the ... BBC News

French ministers consider castration law as man admits kidnapping and...   -  Oct 27, 2009
A man with eight convictions for sexual crimes went on trial in France yesterday charged with kidnapping and raping a five-year-old boy. ... Times Online

Chemical castration to be used in Qld   -  Jun 24, 2008
The Queensland government has endorsed voluntary chemical castration for sex offenders among other measures to strengthen its laws. ... Sydney Morning Herald

Virginia debates castration as treatment for sex offenders   -  Jul 16, 2006
James Jenkins wanted to end it. No more fantasies. No more molesting little girls. He knew he was the only one who could stop it; he was just waiting for ... San Francisco Chronicle

3 North Carolina Men Sentenced to Jail for Castration 'Dungeon'   -  Mar 16, 2007
WAYNESVILLE, NC — Three men accused of operating what police described as a sadomasochistic "dungeon" that included castrations have been sentenced to jail ... FOXNews

Kenya: Parliament Passes Castration Motion   -  Apr 28, 2005
Nairobi — A Motion that could lead to the castration of rapists was passed in Parliament yesterday. Members of Parliament unanimously supported the Motion ...

Thai government bans 'ladyboys' castration   -  Apr 3, 2008
By Andrew Drummond in Bangkok. The Thai government today imposed a nationwide ban on the castration of young boys seeking to join the country's thousands of ...

Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders?   -  Jul 5, 2006
James Jenkins wanted to end it. No more fantasies. No more molesting little girls. He knew he was the only one who could stop it; he was just waiting for ... Washington Post

Czechs criticised over castration   -  Feb 5, 2009
The Czech Republic has been strongly criticised by Europe's leading human rights body for continuing to surgically castrate male sex offenders. ... BBC News

Naming Taiwan an area is self-castration, says DPP   -  Jan 28, 2010
Using the term "area" to describe Taiwan in the eventual Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement with China amounts to the self-castration of Taiwan's ... ??英文新? - ??英文新?

Korean star ends castration claim   -  Jan 25, 2008
South Korean singer Na Hoon-a has offered to expose himself on a live TV show to prove that he has not been castrated in a love quarrel. ... BBC News

Rapist agrees to castration to reduce jail time - Crime & courts-...   -  Sep 11, 2007
Jan. 25: With the teenager who was watching Haleigh Cummings now in jail on drug charges, authorities in Florida are hoping for more clues in the child's ...

School Pig Castration Sparks Protests   -  Feb 22, 2006
A teacher who castrated a live pig in front of her high school class is the target of protests by animal rights activists throughout the country. ... San Francisco Chronicle

The question What's chemical castration?   -  Jan 21, 2010
Surgical castration of sex offenders went out about 100 years ago, but it has been a dream of many doctors, police and prison officers - not to mention home ... The Guardian

Ferguson 'would consider castration'   -  Nov 2, 2009
CONVICTED paedophile Dennis Ferguson says he poses no threat to children in the general community, but would consider chemical castration if it's deemed ...

Prosecutor Ron Herman did not recommend to [Jack Cook] how long [Phu Tran] should undergo the treatment, but Herman said the judge could defer to [Mary Jo ... Pay-Per-View - South Florida Sun - Sentinel - ProQuest Archiver

Woman charged with castration after party   -  Dec 30, 2006
LILLINGTON, NC, Dec. 30 (UPI) -- Lillington, NC, police are investigating a Christmas party that reportedly ended when a woman tried to yank off a man's ...

… Right-Wing Leader Proposes Chemical Castration for Pedophiles,...   -  Feb 19, 2008
ROME — A leading right-wing leader and close ally of conservative candidate for premier Silvio Berlusconi proposed Tuesday that pedophiles be treated with ... FOXNews

China's last eunuch spills sex, castration secrets   -  Mar 15, 2009
By Emma Graham-Harrison. BEIJING (Reuters) - Only two memories brought tears to Sun Yaoting's eyes in old age -- the day his father cut off his genitals, ... Reuters India

Botched castration reveals vet Russell Oakes to be a fraud   -  Jan 14, 2010
A BRITISH "doctor" and "veterinarian" who had supposedly graduated from Perth's Murdoch University has been jailed after he was found to have bought his ...

Rapist undergoes castration to avoid life sentence   -  Sep 21, 2007
PANAMA CITY - A confessed US rapist was sentenced to 25 years in prison, days after he voluntarily underwent castration as part of a plea deal to avoid a ... Brisbane Times

Judges aren't handing out required chemical castration penalty .   -  May 31, 2005
By DAVID ROYSE HE AP . TALLAHASSEE As horri— ble details about 9-year-old Jessica Lunsford's murder emerged and a man with a his of sex crimes was charged ... Herald-Tribune - Google News Archive

Temporary Ban on Castration in Thailand   -  Apr 2, 2008
BANGKOK, Thailand — Thailand's Health Ministry ordered hospitals and medical clinics to temporarily stop performing castrations for non-medical reasons, ... FOXNews

Poland okays forcible castration for paedophiles   -  Sep 28, 2009
WARSAW (Reuters) - Poland on Friday approved a law making chemical castration mandatory for paedophiles in some cases, sparking criticism from human rights ... Reuters UK

Article: Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders?; Man Who …   -  Jul 5, 2006
Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders?; Man Who Mutilated Himself in Jail Thinks So, but Debate on Its Effectiveness Continues in Va., ... Pay-Per-View - Washington Post - HighBeam Research

Botched castration 'vet' jailed   -  Jan 11, 2010
A conman from Lancashire who posed as a vet and nearly killed a pony by botching its castration has been jailed for two years. ... BBC News

Thai surgeons reject cosmetic castration ban   -  Apr 12, 2008
By Marianne Kearney in Jakarta. Thailand's plastic surgery clinics have vowed to defy a recent government ban on performing castrations, saying they will ...

Some convicted Minnesota pedophiles could be sentenced to chemical castration under a measure introduced Thursday. The measure, which would allow judges to ... $2.95 - St. Paul Pioneer Press - NewsBank

The Unkindest Cut: A Czech Solution for Sex Offenders   -  Feb 11, 2009
..."Surgical castration is no longer a generally accepted medical ... Castration as punishment dates back thousands of years and crosses all world cultures. ... TIME

Why castration makes you no less of a man   -  Sep 28, 2007
HALIFAX — From Saturday's Globe and Mail Published on Friday, Sep. 28, 2007 10:15PM EDT Last updated on Friday, Apr. 03, 2009 10:57AM EDT ... Globe and Mail

RIGHTS-KENYA: Child Abuse Sparks Debate on Castration   -  Jan 8, 2010
By Joyce Mulama. NAIROBI, Dec 22 (IPS) - Recent demands by women legislators to have rapists castrated have sparked a debate that has left rights groups in ... Inter Press Service

Panel seeks evidence castration is effective: A lawmaker proposes …   -  Sep 13, 2006
Sep. 13--RICHMOND -- A key state criminal justice panel wants more information about the pros and cons of castration before considering it as an alternative ... Free with registration - Roanoke Times -

Pedophiles push for castration 'cure'   -  May 19, 2009
By staff writers. A GROUP of pedophiles are urging fellow offenders to be castrated in order to return to society. Four self-confessed Czechoslovakian ...

Child molester who asked for castration released .   -  May 4, 2005
Huntsville. Texas A — serial child molester whose demand to be castrated spurred the state to pass a law authorizing the procedure was released from prison ... Milwaukee Journal Sentinel - Google News Archive

Louisiana Lawmakers Consider Castration for Sex Offenders   -  Apr 8, 2008
BATON ROUGE, La. — Castration could be a sentencing option for some sex offenders in Louisiana under a bill approved by a state Senate judiciary committee. ... FOXNews

Legislator's bill favors chemical castration for some sex offenders.   -  Jan 23, 2007
Jan. 23--CHELMSFORD -- In a controversial move, a Winchester legislator has proposed chemical castration for sex offenders, but at least one local ... Free with registration - The Sun -

Polish rapists may face chemical castration   -  Sep 25, 2009
A new law that would make chemical castration mandatory for sex offenders who rape children under age 15 or close relatives, cleared its first hurdle in ...

Child molester who asked for castration released .   -  May 3, 2005
Huntsville. Texas A serial child molester whose demand to be castrated spurred the state to pass a law authorizing the procedure was released from prison to ... Milwaukee Journal Sentinel - Google News Archive

EDITORIAL: What do you think?: Castration shouldn't be an option for...   -  Aug 15, 2006
Aug. 15--How did such a quease-inducing topic as castration become part of a national debate? By way of the frenzy of public attention focused on sexual ... Free with registration - Daily Press -

Obama shrugs off castration comment   -  Jul 11, 2008
NEW YORK–Presumptive US Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama is shrugging off a crude comment aimed at him by Rev. Jesse Jackson. ... Toronto Star

Kaine Vetoes Bill To Study Castration | Article from The Washington...   -  Apr 11, 2007
Kaine Vetoes Bill To Study Castration ... find The Washington Post articles. Gov. Timothy M. Kaine vetoed a bill Tuesday that would have required state ... Pay-Per-View - Washington Post - HighBeam Research

British PM says sorry for computer pioneer's castration   -  Sep 14, 2009
British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has apologised for the treatment of World War II codebreaker Alan Turing, who committed suicide after being convicted ... Sydney Morning Herald

DIY castration balls-up   -  Jan 21, 2005
By SUN ONLINE REPORTER. A DESPERATE man castrated himself in a bid to control his sex drive, it was claimed today. The 50-year-old learned how to carry out ... The Sun

JOHNNY NEIHU'S NEWS WATCH: Self-castration as economic theory   -  Jan 30, 2010
By Johnny Neihu 強尼內湖. So we've started talks on unification with the Chicoms. Economic unification talks, that is. Twenty years from now, ... Taipei Times - Taipei Times

Castration bill delayed a year / Crime commission will be asked to...   -  Feb 10, 2006
...[Emmett W. Hanger Jr.]'s bill would have allowed such offenders to opt to be surgically castrated, or have their testicles removed, as a condition of being ... Pay-Per-View - Richmond Times - Dispatch - ProQuest Archiver

Kaine Vetoes Bill to Study Castration for Offenders | Article from...   -  Apr 11, 2007
Kaine Vetoes Bill to Study Castration for Offenders ... find The Washington Post articles. Gov. Timothy M. Kaine vetoed a bill Tuesday that would have ... Pay-Per-View - Washington Post - HighBeam Research

Sex offender asks for castration   -  Mar 28, 2009
By Brian Horne. A TEENAGER who has been on the sex offenders' register since he was only 13 asked for "chemical castration" to stop him attacking young boys ... Scotsman

France canvasses sex offender castration   -  Sep 29, 2005
France's Interior and Justice ministers have proposed chemically castrating some sex offenders after they are released from prison to stop them from ... Sydney Morning Herald

The Castration Of Bear Stearns   -  Apr 1, 2008
I took a Valium on Sunday night, March 16. My sense of foreboding was comparable with how I felt the eve of Black Monday some 20 years ago. ... Forbes

… : “… Moldovan historian: “Latin alphabet is castration of Moldovan...   -  Jan 22, 2010
...“The Latin alphabet is castration of the Moldovan language and the Moldovan nation. No matter how sad it is to acknowledge it, the Moldavians are castrates. ... И? REGNUM

Vista castration attempt has failed, says Gates   -  Nov 10, 2006
By Nick Farrell. SOFTWARE KING Sir William Gates III has re-assured a Microsoft Business Forum 2006 in Moscow that all attempts to castrate the Vista ... Inquirer

Trio sentenced over castration 'dungeon'   -  Mar 17, 2007
Three men accused of operating what police in the US described as a sadomasochistic "dungeon" that included castrations have been sentenced to jail time. ... The Age

Hippo dies in Ramat Gan safari during castration operation   -  Jun 5, 2009
By Reuters. A five-year-old hippopotamus named Lieber died in an Israeli safari park on Wednesday as he was being castrated by an international medical team ... Ha'aretz

Judges Rarely Use Castration Law   -  May 26, 2005
Recent investigations by News Channel 8 and two state agencies indicate that since 1997, chemical castration -- weekly injections of a woman's birth-control ... Pay-Per-View - Tampa Tribune - ProQuest Archiver

FAWC casts doubt on need for castration and tail-docking   -  Jul 3, 2008
By Dan Buglass. LIFE down on the farm can be a fairly basic business at times, with some practices regularly employed far removed from the starry-eyed ... Scotsman

Moldovan historian: “Latin alphabet is castration of Moldovan nation?   -  Jan 12, 2010
...“The Latin alphabet is castration of the Moldovan language and the Moldovan nation. No matter how sad it is to acknowledge it, the Moldavians are castrates. ... И? REGNUM

Hippo dies during castration   -  May 7, 2009
RAMAT GAN, Israel (Reuters) - A five-year-old hippopotamus named Lieber died in an Israeli safari park on Wednesday as he was being castrated by an ... Reuters UK

Chemical Castration of Child Sex Offenders Planned   -  Dec 3, 2009
The government and ruling Grand National Party on Wednesday agreed to eliminate the statute of limitations for sex crimes against children and raise the ... 조선?보 - 조선?보(?문?)

Castration debated as solution for sex offenders   -  Jul 6, 2006
BY RONDEAUX. James Jenkins wanted to end it. No more fantasies. No more molesting little girls. He knew he was the only one who could stop it; ... Bangor Daily News - Google News Archive

Polish president signs chemical castration law   -  Nov 27, 2009
By Adam Easton. Polish President Lech Kaczynski has signed a law making chemical castration compulsory for adults who rape children or immediate family ... BBC News

Rapist agrees to castration to avoid life in prison   -  Sep 12, 2007
A confessed rapist in Florida has agreed to be castrated in a plea deal that could reduce his prison sentence from a possible life sentence. ... Sydney Morning Herald

PM's apology to codebreaker Alan Turing: we were inhumane   -  Sep 12, 2009
He was given experimental chemical castration as a "treatment". His criminal record meant he was unable to continue his work for the UK Government ... The Guardian

Castration of sex offenders is condemned   -  Feb 6, 2009
PARIS: The Council of Europe's anti-torture committee yesterday demanded an immediate end to surgical castration for sex offenders in the Czech Republic. ... Gulf Daily News

France considers 'chemical castration' for sexual criminals   -  Oct 5, 2009
France is considering the compulsory "chemical castration" of sexual criminals after a woman jogger was murdered in a forest south of Paris by a convicted ... Belfast Telegraph

Italian minister: Use chemical castration   -  Feb 16, 2009
ROME, Feb. 16 (UPI) -- An Italian Cabinet minister has called for rapists to be chemically castrated, local media reported. ...

Sex offenders volunteer for 'chemical castration' drug treatment   -  Dec 27, 2008
Sex offenders are being given drugs which lower their libido and make it difficult for them to reoffend, in a voluntary scheme introduced by Jack Straw, ...

French test 'chemical castration'   -  Jan 13, 2005
By John Laurenson. Doctors in France have started giving chemical treatment to 48 repeat sex offenders to see if it will stop them attacking again. ... BBC News

Bill offers castration for sex offenders   -  Feb 1, 2006
BY Deirdre Fernandes. RICHMOND - The state Senate is considering several bills to toughen the penalties against sex offenders, but one bill goes further ... $2.95 - Virginian-Pilot - NewsBank

Sex offences advisor backs castration   -  May 20, 2009
Some sex offenders could benefit from being castrated, one of the Government's leading advisers on the treatment of sex pests has said. ...

Killing puts 'castration' on French agenda   -  Mar 13, 2009
France is considering forcing some sex offenders to undergo chemical castration after a public outcry over the murder of a jogger by a rapist who had ... The Guardian

Rapist Stephen Kennedy's plea for castration   -  Sep 5, 2009
By Peter Michael. A DEPRAVED sex "monster" is willing to undergo voluntary chemical castration in a bid to reduce his risk of re-offending and his jail time ... Herald Sun

France: Chemical Castration Considered After Brutal Murder Near Paris...   -  Oct 2, 2009
France is considering whether to force some sex offenders to undergo chemical castration after a former prisoner allegedly committed a brutal murder. ... Sky News

… a dangerous urge Czechs defend castration of pedophiles | Article...   -  Mar 11, 2009
Taming a dangerous urge Czechs defend castration of pedophiles ... find International Herald Tribune articles. Dan Bilefsky The New York Times Media Group ... Pay-Per-View - International Herald Tribune - HighBeam Research

Unwanted horses spark castration call   -  Jun 11, 2009
By JEFFREY McMURRAY, AP Writer. Publicity campaigns across the nation are urging owners of male horses to have them castrated as a way of reducing unwanted ... San Francisco Chronicle

Is chemical castration a cure for perversion?   -  May 25, 2009
By Ofri Ilani. Chemical castration - designed to suppress the libido of sexual offenders - was first put into practice in the United States 30 years ago. ... Ha'aretz

RIGHTS: Castration for Polish Paedophiles Opposed   -  Dec 7, 2009
By Pavol Stracansky. BRATISLAVA, Oct 2 (IPS) - New legislation in Poland introducing compulsory castration of paedophiles has angered human rights groups, ... Inter Press Service

...[Jack Cook] ordered [Phu Tran] to undergo five years of chemical castration treatments, but did not do so until nearly four months after Tran's sentencing, ... Pay-Per-View - South Florida Sun - Sentinel - ProQuest Archiver

Chemical Castration Needed to Fight Prostate Cancer, Study Says   -  Jun 10, 2009
By Michelle Fay Cortez. June 10 (Bloomberg) -- Prostate cancer patients need three years of treatment known as chemical castration to suppress the ... Bloomberg

M'sia minister backs castration for repeat offender rapists   -  Jul 9, 2008
KUALA LUMPUR - A SENIOR female minister in Malaysia said on Wednesday she backs the castration of repeat offender rapists as a way to put a stop to a surge ... AsiaOne

Prostate technique questioned; Medical castration for localized...   -  Jul 9, 2008
Medical castration to treat localized prostate tumors does not prolong survival and its side effects far outweigh any potential benefit for most patients, ... Pay-Per-View - Los Angeles Times - ProQuest Archiver

Thailand's Teen Castration Ban Splits Doctors, Gay Campaigners   -  Aug 4, 2008
By Shanthy Nambiar and Suttinee Yuvejwattana. Aug. 5 (Bloomberg) -- Paiboon Marvin started wearing dresses and makeup before he became a teenager. ... Bloomberg

Thailand Castration Ban Backtrack: Only Underage Boys To Face …   -  Apr 9, 2008
Thai authorities have backtracked on a total castration surgery ban, now saying only under-age boys will be prohibited from undergoing the procedure. ... Sky News

Sex-offender castration debated Some say current treatment too costly...   -  Feb 6, 2006
By KRISTEN. AP WRITER . RICHMOND— A lawmaker fed up with what he calls ineffective and costly treatment for sexual predators is proposing another option to ... Free-Lance Star - Google News Archive

What was all that stuff about love and marriage? Castration, more like   -  Nov 12, 2005
While my working-class sisters are still popping out the puppies at a young age — and in the light of their snootier sisters' reluctance to, isn't it time ... Times Online

Castration call for Swedish transgenders   -  Aug 3, 2008
By News Staff - 3rd August 2008. A new proposal to introduce castration as a prerequisite for those undergoing gender reassignment surgery in ... Gay NZ

Background information on Castration [When available]

Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical, chemical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. This causes sterilization, i.e. prevents them from reproducing; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. It should not be confused with penectomy, which is the whole or partial removal of the penis.

The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the non-male, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. The estrogen that the non-males produce becomes obsolete with this surgical procedure.

Castration in humans


Castration was frequently used in certain cultures, such as in Europe, the Middle East, India, Africa or China, for religious or social reasons. After battles, winners castrated their captives or bodies of the defeated to symbolise their victory and 'seize' their power. Castrated men - eunuchs - were often admitted to special social classes. Eunuchs were also often used to guard harems. Castration also figured in a number of religious cults: see castration cults. Other religions, for example Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice.

In Europe, when women were not allowed to sing in public, young boys were sometimes castrated to prevent their voices breaking at puberty and to develop a special high voice. These men, known as castrati were very popular in the Eighteenth Century. The practice of employing castrati lasted longest in Italian churches, most notoriously in the Sistine Chapel Choir. [1] [2]

Remains of transsexual women or transgendered people from as far back as the Roman era have been uncovered and confirmed to have undergone castration.

Castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions.


Surgical removal of a testicle is done in the case of testicular cancer. Surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer, as hormone treatment to slow down the cancer. [3]

Male-to-female transsexual women, as well as some transgendered people, often undergo castration. Castration can be done before, during, or in place of sex reassignment surgery.

A temporary chemical castration has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes such as rape or other sexually related violence. Chemical or surgical castration is being discussed in many countries in particular as a voluntary surgical measure: an option for child molesters to avoid (long-term) imprisonment. In the case of chemical castration, regular injections of anti-androgens would probably be required. However, this treatment is not as effective as commonly believed, for there have been numerous cases of castrated men continuing to molest children.

There is also evidence that voluntary castration is used in modern societies for reasons such as control of libido, body modification, and in some cases of extreme sexual masochism, for purposes of sexual excitement (see paraphilia and apotemnophilia). Since voluntary castration is not generally supported by the medical community, an underground network of castrators (generally called "cutters") without medical licenses has formed. Surgery performed by untrained personnel outside a properly equipped medical facility is dangerous, and there have been cases of severe bleeding and other medical emergencies. Alternatively, self-castration (or autocastration) is occasionally performed, though it carries significant risk. Many who desire castration travel to developing countries, where medicine is less tightly regulated, and have the procedure performed by a doctor.

Involuntary castration also appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was also practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to possess the defeated men's women. Involuntary castration under such circumstances involved excruciating pain and humiliation as well as various physical, social, and psychological consequences. Ancient Greek writings report Persian forces castrating defeated foes. Tamerlane was recorded to have castrated Armenian prisoners of war who had fought as allies of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I; others were buried alive. Gibbon's famous work, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans. The Vietcong have sometimes been accused of castrating US war prisoners, Vietnamese village elders, and others who opposed their policies. Castration has also been used in modern conflicts, as the Janjaweed militiamen currently (as of 2005) attacking citizens of the Darfur region in Sudan often castrate villagers as part of a campaign of terror.

Sima Qian, the famous Chinese Historian, was castrated by order of the Emperor of China for dissent. Another famous victim of castration was the medieval monk Abelard, castrated by his lover's relatives.

The Heaven's Gate cult of Marshall Applewhite had several male members, including Applewhite himself, who underwent castration for religious reasons.

Medical consequences

A subject of castration who is castrated before the onset of puberty will retain his high voice, slight build and small genitals, will not develop pubic hair, and will have a small sex drive or none at all.

In ancient times castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection, and in some states such as the Byzantine Empire was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles entailed much less risk. That said, the Hijras of India still practice the total removal of the male genitalia.

Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrates can, however, still have erections, orgasms and ejaculations. The voice will normally not change. Some castrates report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair may or may not decrease. Castration prevents baldness.

In China, male castration of a person who entered the caste of eunuchs under imperial times involved the removal of all genitalia, that is, the removal of the penis, testicles and scrotum. The removed organs were returned to the eunuch, to be interred with him once he dies, so upon rebirth, he could become a whole man again. The penis, testicles and scrotum were euphemistically termed as bao (?) in Mandarin Chinese, which literally means 'precious treasure'. Consequently, eunuchs suffered from a range of urogenital problems associated with the removal of their sexual organs, and they had their own specialist doctors who catered to their health needs.

Castration In Veterinary Practice

Castration is common in animal husbandry and animal fancy, where it is intended for favouring a given desired development of the animal or of its habits.

In animal fancy

Usually domestic pets are subject to castration in order to avoid sexual frustration or sexual contacts and consequent reproduction. In the case of pets, this is usually called neutering. breeding specimens are kept entire and fetch higher prices when sold.

In animal husbandry

In the food industry, cattle and other ruminants are often castrated in order to increase their weight and improve the taste of the meat (with the advantage of relevant economies of scale for the breeder). Male animals may also be castrated in order to make them more tractable.

A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species:
  • Barrow (pig)
  • Bullock (cattle)
  • Capon (chicken)
  • Dinmont (sheep, goat)
  • Gelding (horse)
  • Gib (cat)
  • Havier (deer)
  • Hog (pig)
  • Lapin (rabbit)
  • Ox (cattle)
  • Stag (primarily cattle)
  • Steer (cattle)
  • Wether (sheep)
Certain animals, like horses and swine, are usually treated with a scrotal castration (which can be done with the animal standing), while others, like dogs and cats, with a pre-scrotal castration (with the animal recumbent).

Methods of veterinary castration include surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against its own sexual hormones.

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