CastrationThis page contains recent news articles, when available, and an overview of Castration but does not offer medical advice. You should contact your physician with regard to any health issues or concerns.
Background information on Castration [When available]
Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical, chemical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. This causes sterilization, i.e. prevents them from reproducing; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. It should not be confused with penectomy, which is the whole or partial removal of the penis.
The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the non-male, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. The estrogen that the non-males produce becomes obsolete with this surgical procedure.
Castration in humans
Castration was frequently used in certain cultures, such as in Europe, the Middle East, India, Africa or China, for religious or social reasons. After battles, winners castrated their captives or bodies of the defeated to symbolise their victory and 'seize' their power. Castrated men - eunuchs - were often admitted to special social classes. Eunuchs were also often used to guard harems. Castration also figured in a number of religious cults: see castration cults. Other religions, for example Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice.
In Europe, when women were not allowed to sing in public, young boys were sometimes castrated to prevent their voices breaking at puberty and to develop a special high voice. These men, known as castrati were very popular in the Eighteenth Century. The practice of employing castrati lasted longest in Italian churches, most notoriously in the Sistine Chapel Choir.  
Remains of transsexual women or transgendered people from as far back as the Roman era have been uncovered and confirmed to have undergone castration.
Castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions.
Surgical removal of a testicle is done in the case of testicular cancer. Surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer, as hormone treatment to slow down the cancer. 
Male-to-female transsexual women, as well as some transgendered people, often undergo castration. Castration can be done before, during, or in place of sex reassignment surgery.
A temporary chemical castration has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes such as rape or other sexually related violence. Chemical or surgical castration is being discussed in many countries in particular as a voluntary surgical measure: an option for child molesters to avoid (long-term) imprisonment. In the case of chemical castration, regular injections of anti-androgens would probably be required. However, this treatment is not as effective as commonly believed, for there have been numerous cases of castrated men continuing to molest children.
There is also evidence that voluntary castration is used in modern societies for reasons such as control of libido, body modification, and in some cases of extreme sexual masochism, for purposes of sexual excitement (see paraphilia and apotemnophilia). Since voluntary castration is not generally supported by the medical community, an underground network of castrators (generally called "cutters") without medical licenses has formed. Surgery performed by untrained personnel outside a properly equipped medical facility is dangerous, and there have been cases of severe bleeding and other medical emergencies. Alternatively, self-castration (or autocastration) is occasionally performed, though it carries significant risk. Many who desire castration travel to developing countries, where medicine is less tightly regulated, and have the procedure performed by a doctor.
Involuntary castration also appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was also practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to possess the defeated men's women. Involuntary castration under such circumstances involved excruciating pain and humiliation as well as various physical, social, and psychological consequences. Ancient Greek writings report Persian forces castrating defeated foes. Tamerlane was recorded to have castrated Armenian prisoners of war who had fought as allies of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I; others were buried alive. Gibbon's famous work, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans. The Vietcong have sometimes been accused of castrating US war prisoners, Vietnamese village elders, and others who opposed their policies. Castration has also been used in modern conflicts, as the Janjaweed militiamen currently (as of 2005) attacking citizens of the Darfur region in Sudan often castrate villagers as part of a campaign of terror.
Sima Qian, the famous Chinese Historian, was castrated by order of the Emperor of China for dissent. Another famous victim of castration was the medieval monk Abelard, castrated by his lover's relatives.
The Heaven's Gate cult of Marshall Applewhite had several male members, including Applewhite himself, who underwent castration for religious reasons.
A subject of castration who is castrated before the onset of puberty will retain his high voice, slight build and small genitals, will not develop pubic hair, and will have a small sex drive or none at all.
In ancient times castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection, and in some states such as the Byzantine Empire was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles entailed much less risk. That said, the Hijras of India still practice the total removal of the male genitalia.
Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrates can, however, still have erections, orgasms and ejaculations. The voice will normally not change. Some castrates report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair may or may not decrease. Castration prevents baldness.
In China, male castration of a person who entered the caste of eunuchs under imperial times involved the removal of all genitalia, that is, the removal of the penis, testicles and scrotum. The removed organs were returned to the eunuch, to be interred with him once he dies, so upon rebirth, he could become a whole man again. The penis, testicles and scrotum were euphemistically termed as bao (?) in Mandarin Chinese, which literally means 'precious treasure'. Consequently, eunuchs suffered from a range of urogenital problems associated with the removal of their sexual organs, and they had their own specialist doctors who catered to their health needs.
Castration In Veterinary Practice
Castration is common in animal husbandry and animal fancy, where it is intended for favouring a given desired development of the animal or of its habits.
In animal fancy
Usually domestic pets are subject to castration in order to avoid sexual frustration or sexual contacts and consequent reproduction. In the case of pets, this is usually called neutering. breeding specimens are kept entire and fetch higher prices when sold.
In animal husbandry
In the food industry, cattle and other ruminants are often castrated in order to increase their weight and improve the taste of the meat (with the advantage of relevant economies of scale for the breeder). Male animals may also be castrated in order to make them more tractable.
A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species:
Methods of veterinary castration include surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against its own sexual hormones.
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